|Zhuge Liang (181 - 234)|
Zhuge Liang was an excellent politician, thinker and strategist in the period of the Three Kingdoms. His hometown was in present Shandong Province. He became parentless when still young. His uncle brought him up and he suffered homeless life because of the chaos caused by war. After his uncle died, he took up a recluse life in present Hubei Province for ten years, but still kept a close watch on the state affairs outside. Finally, Liubei, the ruler of the Shu Kingdom entreated him out of the withdrawal. For the rest of his life, he served in the Shu Kingdom as the chief military advisor.
Since the regime of Caocao in the north boasted the strongest force, Zhuge Liang suggested his master to make allies with the equally weak Wu Kingdom against Caocao, which helped to form the confrontation of three kingdoms for over thirty years. Shu-Wu alliance once thoroughly defeated the army of Caocao, who was driven back and stayed in the north of the Yellow River for a long time.
Later, a war broke out between the Wu and Shu kingdoms. Liubei was badly
defeated and died soon. At his death, he entrust to Zhuge Liang his
child and the country. From then on, Zhuge Liang devoted himself to the
cause of the restoration of the Han Empire bequeathed by his master. He
resumed the good terms with the Wu Kingdom, put down the revolt on the
border area and ordered the northern expeditions against the Wei Kingdom.
In 234 AD, Zhuge Liang died of life exhaustion on the battlefield of northern expedition. His death marked the downfall of the Shu Kingdom. He once remarked himself as to bend myself to a task and exert the life to the utmost. Even his rivals could not help admiring his great talent and his devotion to the country. Based on his war experience, Zhuge Liang initiated Eight Elements Battle Formation for army deployment and arrangement. Now the site where he once drilled the army still remains in Fengjie County, Chongqing Municipality. And Wuhou Memorial Temple (Temple of Marquis Wu) has been built all over the country in honor of Zhuge Liang.